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Allopurinol

Allopurinol

Allopurinol is an FDA-approved medication for treating and preventing kidney stones and gout. The prescription medication contains Allopurinol as its active ingredient, which reduces the excess uric levels in the bloodstream. It is available in tablet and intravenous injection forms and comes in the strength of 10 mg and 300 mg. The dosage of the medication is based on your condition and your body’s response to treatment. If you have any queries or concerns regarding the use of the medication, contact your physician or healthcare provider and also ask them what are the potential risks and benefits of taking Allopurinol. If you are looking to buy Allopurinol online from Canada, buy from the best Canadian online pharmacy.

Product Overview

Allopurinol contains the active ingredient allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. It primarily treats and prevents kidney stones and gout by lowering excess uric acid levels in the bloodstream. Allopurinol can also be used to prevent high uric acid levels in individuals receiving chemotherapy medications.

Allopurinol is available in tablet form (Zyloprim) with strengths of 10 mg and 300 mg and as a solution for intravenous injection with a strength of 20 mg/ml. The recommended dosage of Allopurinol varies depending on the patient’s condition and age. For gout, adults typically start with 100 to 300 mg per day, with a maximum of 800 mg per day. A doctor determines children’s dosage. Allopurinol works by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in uric acid production, thus reducing uric acid levels in the body.

Common side effects of Allopurinol include abnormal liver function tests, diarrhea, drowsiness, increased gout attacks during initial doses, kidney problems, nausea, rashes, and vomiting. Adverse side effects can include severe allergic reactions, liver problems, signs of infection, and blood vessel inflammation. It is crucial to follow the instructions given by your physician, undergo regular medical tests, and report any unusual symptoms. Store Allopurinol in its original container at room temperature, away from light, heat, and moisture. Avoid consuming alcohol while taking Allopurinol. Always consult your healthcare provider or physician for medical advice about side effects and proper usage.

Uses of Allopurinol 

Allopurinol is indicated for use in: 

  • Adults and sometimes children to treat and prevent kidney stones and gout. 
  • Preventing or lowering excess uric acid levels in the bloodstream. 
  • Lowering the high levels of uric acid in individuals receiving chemotherapy medications who have excess uric acid levels. 

How to Use Allopurinol?

Dosage

Allopurinol is available in the form of a tablet (Zyloprim) that is taken by mouth orally. It also comes in the form of a solution for intravenous injection. The strengths of both the tablet and solution are as follows: 

  • Tablet: 10 mg & 300 mg
  • Solution for injection: 20 mg/ml

Recommended Dosage for Different Patients/(Allopurinol)

For gout

  • Adults-
    • An initial 100 to 300 mg dosage should be taken once daily or in divided doses. 
    • Your doctor may adjust your daily dosage according to your needs and condition. 
    • The maximum daily dosage is 800 mg per day. 
  • Children- 
    • The doctor determines the use and dosage for pediatric patients. 

For high uric acid levels caused by chemotherapy medications

  • Adults and children 11 years old or more-
    • Usually, dosage of 300 to 800 mg per day should be taken once daily or in divided doses. 
    • Your doctor may adjust your daily dosage according to your needs and condition.
    • The maximum daily dosage is 800 mg per day. 
  • Children- 
    • The doctor determines the use and dosage for pediatric patients. 
    • The dosage is based on body surface area. 

For kidney stones

  • Adults- 
    • Usually, the dosage of 200 to 300 mg per day should be taken once daily or in divided doses.
    • Your doctor may adjust your daily dosage according to your needs and condition. 
    • Maximum dose is 800 mg daily. 
  • Children- 
    • The doctor determines the use and dosage for pediatric patients. 

[Note: Remember these recommendations may vary depending on person to person. Discuss it with your doctor, and they’ll customize your dosage accordingly.]

How to Take It?

  • You should take this medication exactly as your doctor or healthcare provider directs. 
  • Carefully read and follow all instructions for use given on the prescription label. 
  • Take Allopurinol orally by mouth, usually once a day. 
  • To reduce your risk of upset stomach, take this medication after finishing your meal. 
  • You should drink plenty of water with each dose. 
  • Consume at least eight liters of water to reduce your risk of kidney stones unless your doctor has advised otherwise due to other medical reasons. 
  • Your doctor may also direct you to ways to reduce uric acid.  
  • Your doctor may occasionally change your dosage of Allopurinol when your body is under stress, i.e., when you are ill, about to have surgery, or stressed. 
  • The dosage of the medication is based on your condition and your body’s response to treatment. 
  • To get the most benefit from this medication, it is crucial to maintain consistency and remember to take it around the same time every day.  
  • For gout treatment and prevention, it may take many weeks for you to start noticing improvement in your condition. 
  • After starting to take this medication, you may have more gout attacks for the initial months. 
  • It is noteworthy to mention that Allopurinol is not a pain relief medication. Continue to take your prescription medication to provide relief from gout. 
  • A licensed healthcare professional should administer the intravenous injection in a medical setting, such as a hospital. 
  • The injection should only be used when you cannot take the tablet orally. 
  • While you are taking this medication, you may need to undergo frequent medical testing, even if you do not have any symptoms. 
  • You should also take tests to check your liver and kidney functions. You may require a dosage adjustment if there is any change in your kidney function. 
  • Your symptoms will start to change after two to six weeks. Consult a doctor or healthcare provider if your symptoms don’t improve after six weeks. 
  • To prevent kidney stones, you may need to follow a special diet. For safe and efficient use of the medicine, follow all instructions your doctor or dietitian gives. Ask them which foods should be avoided and which should be taken. 
  • Store the medication in its original container at a controlled room temperature, away from light, heat, and moisture. 
  • Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or worsens after six weeks of taking the medication.

[Note: Your doctor will decide the right amount for you based on your condition, following guidelines and studies on the drug. They’ll adjust it as needed over time.]

How Does Allopurinol Work?

Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, lowers excess uric acid levels in the bloodstream. It inhibits an enzyme that plays a crucial role in producing uric acid. By inhibiting xanthine oxidase, Allopurinol reduces the formation of uric acid. When uric acid levels are too high in the body, it can form crystals around joints and kidneys, causing pain and discomfort. Starting Allopurinol during a gout attack appears safe and should be continued even during an acute attack.

Important Safety Information

Side Effects

Common side effects of Allopurinol may include: 

  • Abnormal liver function tests
  • Diarrhea 
  • Drowsiness
  • Increased gout attacks during initial doses
  • Kidney problems  
  • Nausea 
  • Rashes 
  • Vomiting 

Adverse side effects of Allopurinol may include:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction. Symptoms may include: 
    • Difficulty in breathing 
    • Hives
    • Swelling in your face, tongue, or throat
  • Severe skin reactions. Symptoms may include: 
    • Burning eyes
    • Fever
    • Rash with peeling and blistering. 
    • Skin pain
    • Sore throat 
  • Blood vessel inflammation. Symptoms may include: 
    • A sensation of numbness or tingling 
    • Body ache
    • Fatigue 
    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Night sweats
    • Skin rash
    • Weakness 
    • Weight loss
  • Liver problems. Symptoms may include:
    • Clay-colored stools
    • Dark urine
    • Itching
    • Jaundice
    • Loss of appetite
    • Stomach pain
    • Weight loss
  • Signs of an infection. Symptoms may include: 
    • Body aches
    • Chills
    • Easily bruising or bleeding
    • Fever
    • Loss of appetite
    • Sore throat
    • Unusual fatigue or weakness

[Note: This list may not cover all possible side effects. Always consult with your healthcare giver for medical advice about side effects.]

Warnings

  • You should not take Allopurinol if allergic to the medication or its inactive ingredients. 
  • This medication may reduce the blood cells that fight infections in your body. This may cause you to bleed and bruise more easily. It may also make you prone to illness and infections. 
  • While taking this medication, you may need to have medical tests more frequently. Also, visit your doctor frequently to look for any unwelcome side effects and know how the medication affects you. 
  • Rarely, this medication can also cause a severe allergic reaction. Discontinue using Allopurinol and call your doctor if you have symptoms such as blood in your urine, painful urination, swelling in your tongue, face, or throat, if your eyes are burning, or if you have redness, itching, and rashes on your skin that is spreading and causing peeling or blistering. 
  • It is not recommended to consume alcohol while you are taking this medication, as it can make your condition worse. Avoid taking alcoholic beverages and medications that may contain alcohol. 
  • It may also affect your ability to think clearly and react. Be cautious while driving, operating heavy machinery, or indulging in activities that require attention and clear vision unless you determine how this medication affects you. 

Boxed Warning

The FDA requires a boxed warning for Allopurinol due to the risk of adverse allergic reactions, including toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. These reactions can be fatal. Allopurinol can also cause other serious adverse reactions, such as liver injury and severe hypersensitivity reactions.

Precautions

  • Use Allopurinol under the guidance of a healthcare professional and report any signs of allergic reactions or other serious side effects immediately. 
  • Let your doctor, pharmacist, and healthcare provider know about your medications. This includes all prescription medication, over-the-counter drugs, and herbal supplements. If there is any drug interaction between your current medications and Allopurinol, your doctor may change the dosage or monitor you carefully for side effects.  
  • Tell your doctor if you have the following medical conditions:
    • Hypertension 
    • Diabetes 
    • Kidney or liver disease
    • Heart failure
  • Let your doctor know if you suspect a pregnancy, are pregnant, or if you are planning to become pregnant while you are taking this medication. It is unknown how it may affect your pregnancy. Take Allopurinol during pregnancy only after consulting your doctor. 
  • If you are breastfeeding a baby or about to breastfeed and planning to take this medication, you must consult your doctor before starting to take Allopurinol. 

Contraindications

Allopurinol is contraindicated for use in patients who:

  • Are of Thai, Han Chinese, or Korean origin.
  • Currently have an attack of gout.
  • Have you ever been allergic to Allopurinol, any of its inactive ingredients, or any other medication.
  • Have problems with your liver or kidneys.
  • Have thyroid problems

Missed Dose

  • To get the best results from the medications, it is important to maintain consistency in dosage and take it around the same time every day. 
  • If you missed a dose of Allopurinol, you should take it as soon as you remember. 
  • However, if it is almost time to take your next dose, you can omit the missed dose and take the missed dose as per your regular dosing schedule. 
  • Do not take two doses of the same medication to compensate for the missed dose. 
  • To prevent missing doses in the future, try setting a reminder on your phone. 

[Note: If you have missed a medication dose and are unsure when to take the next one, immediately consult your doctor or pharmacist.]

Overdose

You should not take Allopurinol more than the recommended dose. If someone has overdosed on the medication and is having severe symptoms such as passing out, difficulty breathing, and seizures, you should seek immediate medical attention. You can call 911 or head to the nearest emergency room. If you consume the medication more than prescribed, you may experience the following symptoms: 

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting 
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Headache 
  • Stomach pain 

[Note: If you consumed more than the recommended dose, get medical help immediately or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.]

Storage

  • Store allopurinol in its original container, tightly closed at a controlled room temperature, away from excess heat, direct sunlight, open fire, and moisture. 
  • Do not keep it in the bathroom, as moisture can affect the medication’s work. 
  • Keep all medications, including Allopurinol, in a safe place- away from the sight and reach of children. 
  • Do not keep outdated or unwanted medications. 
  • Dispose of them in ways that children, animals, and other people cannot consume them. 
  • Do not flush the medication unless directed otherwise. 
  • Do not throw the medications in wastewater or your household dustbin. 
  • The best way to get rid of unwanted medication is the medicine-take-back program. 
  • For more information on how to properly discard unwanted medications, consult your healthcare provider or local waste disposal company. 

[Note: Discuss with your healthcare professional the proper disposal of unused medicine and any questions you may have regarding its storage.]

Allopurinol Interactions

  • aluminum hydroxide
  • amoxicillin
  • ampicillin
  • azathioprine
  • benazepril
  • calcium carbonate
  • captopril
  • cyclosporine
  • cyclophosphamide
  • dichlorphenamide
  • didanosine
  • dyphylline
  • enalapril
  • ethambutol
  • hydroxyurea
  • methotrexate
  • mercaptopurine
  • mipomersen
  • protamine
  • perindopril
  • sodium bicarbonate
  • sodium citrate/citric acid
  • tacrolimus
  • theophylline
  • thioguanine
  • warfarin

[Note: This isn’t a complete list, and there could be other drugs that interact with Allopurinol. Tell your doctor about any prescription, over-the-counter medicines, and herbal products you’re taking.]

Allopurinol Alternatives

  • Aloprim (allopurinol) 
  • Febuxostat (febuxostat )
  • Probenecid (sulfonamide)
  • Krystexxa (pegloticase)
  • Pegloticase (pegloticase)
  • Rilonacept (rilonacept)

[Note: Your doctor will choose what’s best for you. Don’t use any of these alternative medications without consulting your healthcare provider. Taking them by yourself may cause serious side effects.] 

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the common side effects of Allopurinol?

Common side effects caused by Allopurinol may include abnormal liver function tests, diarrhea, drowsiness, increased gout attacks during initial doses, kidney problems, nausea, rashes, and vomiting. It is essential to report any unusual symptoms to your healthcare provider.

How does Allopurinol work to treat gout and kidney stones?

Allopurinol works by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in uric acid production. Reducing uric acid levels in the body helps prevent the production of crystals that may lead to gout attacks and kidney stones.

What precautions should be taken while using Allopurinol?

It is important to use Allopurinol under the guidance of a healthcare professional and report any signs of allergic reactions or other serious side effects immediately. Let your doctor know about all medications you are taking to avoid potential drug interactions.

Are there any alternative medications to Allopurinol for treating gout and kidney stones?

Alternative medications include Febuxostat, Probenecid, Krystexxa, Pegloticase, and Rilonacept. However, the choice of medication should be made by your doctor based on your condition and medical history.

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